Gasket materials and applications

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Gasket materials and applications

Gasket material selection is critical. To perform their function, gaskets are expected to be compressible and resilient. After all, the purpose of a gasket sealant is to compensate for the un conformity of mating surfaces surface irregularities. These irregularities may be minute or large. The gasket material may need to limit the flow of gas or fluids through the irregularities. No matter what, gasket material is required to compensate for the difference.

Gasket material suppliers need to have a wide selection of material. They also need to know how the material will perform in specific applications. Our wide inventory includes very thin paper gasket materials, heavy gauge rubber and everything in between. Selecting the right material for the right application is not easy.

The variables are endless, yet all must be taken into consideration to avoid potentially dangerous situations caused by gasket failure. Our savvy team members stay up-to-date as industry standards change and new products are introduced. They are ready to assist in making the proper gasket material selection. There are hundreds of different styles of gasket material including rubber sheethigh temp gasket materialand non asbestos compressed gasket sheets. The above is but a sampling of our inventory.

Contact us today and we will assist in the selection of the proper material for your application. If we don't have it, we will find it for you.Fabrico works with design engineers during gasket design to assist in selecting the appropriate gasket material, the right process for cutting or converting that material, correct adhesive to use with that material, if an adhesive is required, and the best method for manufacturing the gasket cost-effectively to fit into an assembly process.

Gaskets work as a seal between two parts. This seal may provide a physical barrier against fluids, electrostatic discharge ESDelectromagnetic interference EMIand contaminants such as dust and dirt. It can also help resist extrusion and creep of parts under operating conditions. Fabrico designs and converts materials to make gaskets as critical elements in many applications in a wide range of industries:.

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Gasket Material Applications

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Company History. Design, Prototype, and Fabrication Leader. Material Design, Selection and Converting for Gaskets Fabrico works with design engineers during gasket design to assist in selecting the appropriate gasket material, the right process for cutting or converting that material, correct adhesive to use with that material, if an adhesive is required, and the best method for manufacturing the gasket cost-effectively to fit into an assembly process.

Use the Right Gasket Material - Wrenchin' Up

Request a Quote. Home Contact Us.A gasket is a sealing device made of deformable material usually designed in the form of a ring or sheet. Gaskets create a pressure-tight seam between multiple stationary components, relying on a compression seal to prevent unwanted gas or liquid emissions.

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These seals are often intended to be resistant to pressure, temperature fluctuations, and in some cases, electrical or electromagnetic forces. Since it uses compression, a gasket is typically more malleable than the components it joins and is able to conform to the shape of the harder surfaces between which it is placed. Gaskets are available in a large number of specifications, making proper gasket selection an important step in many manufacturing processes.

They can be formed from a wide range of materials, such as metals, rubbers, plastics, corks, foams, and composite substances. They also come in numerous designs, including jacketed, double-jacketed, spiral wound, and Kammprofile varieties.

While gaskets serve an important function as sealing joints, there are a handful of similar devices that may be better-suited to certain tasks. An application requiring a seal that forms a barrier between external and internal elements, such as a unit to prevent water leakage, usually needs a gasket.

gasket materials and applications

Unlike gaskets, o-rings are made almost exclusively of synthetic rubber or plastic polymers with elastomeric properties, and are produced solely in ring form. They are durable and reliable in sealing matched components by creating a barrier around an area with leakage potential. After determining that a gasket—as opposed to a shim or an o-ring—is the appropriate device for a given application, several other factors must be taken into account to choose a well-suited design.

gasket materials and applications

There are numerous types of gaskets, though many share similar features and may be capable of handling related tasks. Some of the most common varieties of gasket include:. These gaskets are typically formed with aluminum, copper, nickel, steel, stainless steel, or brass. These materials provide a high level of thermal, corrosive, and pressure resistance, along with excellent durability and tensile strength.

On the other hand, metals require elevated amounts of compressive force to form a seal and have limited flexibility for multiple applications. Due to its elastomeric properties, rubber is a popular material for gasket production. Since they can undergo a high degree of deformation without permanent damage or loss of attributes, rubber gaskets can form very tight seals within a wide range of applications. Some types of rubber frequently used in gasket manufacturing include nitril, viton, and neoprene.

Certain polymers, such as thermoplastic elastomer, thermoplastic rubber, and polyvinyl chloride, display qualities similar to those of rubber and are also common in gasket production. Silicone is a valuable gasket material because it displays strong resistance to extreme temperatures. Silicone-based gaskets can have operating temperatures that range between roughly degrees to degrees Fahrenheit.A spiral wound gasket consists of spirally wound usually V-section metal strip with filler material and an outer metallic ring to hold the windings in place.

gasket materials and applications

Spiral wound gaskets are categorized as semi-metallic gaskets and their design is covered by ASME B A spiral wound gasket is designed for one time use. The outer metallic ring of spiral wound gaskets is known as retaining ring or centering ring or outer guide ring. The centering ring just makes contact with the stud bolts and thus helps in aligning the gasket on the flange face.

If there is more gap between the stud bolts and centering ring, it is an indication that the correct size or rating of gasket is not being used on the flange connection. The centering ring also acts as a compression limit stop to prevent over-compression of the gasket during the flange assembly as well as an anti-blowout device.

The outer guide ring is generally supplied as coated carbon steel but could be provided in other materials for corrosion protection against external environment. It may be noted that the retaining ring does not come in direct contact with the contained fluid and hence need not be compatible with the process fluid. The inner ring acts as a compression limit stop and prevents the gasket from being overcompressed and inward buckling.

Inner rings are required to be provided for the following flanges:. The thickness of inner ring is same as outer ring. The material of the inner ring should normally match the material of the winding.

Inner retaining ring increases the axial rigidity and resilience of the gasket. By filling the annular space between the gasket and flange, the inner ring reduces turbulence in the flange area and possibility of accumulation of solids or debris in the gap.

The commonly used filler materials and their temperature limits are provided below for guidance. The actual limits may vary with manufacturers. Some process conditions may require that graphite based filler be coated by an appropriate corrosion inhibitor in order to prevent possible galvanic corrosion. Other thicknesses available with manufacturers are tabulated below for reference. The actual compressed thickness is required to be verified with the manufacturer. The following spiral wound gasket parameters may be considered for flange bolting calculations as per ASME Code.

During flange assembly, as the bolts are tightened the flange faces compress the gasket. When internal system pressure acts on the inside of gasket, the windings are radially extended, which leads to the filler material being squeezed outward against the flange faces. Due to the chevron V-shape and the orientation of metal windings, as the internal pressure increases, a higher sealing force is generated against the flange faces as the v-shape tends to become straight.

Lined Piping. Materials General. Materials Corrosion. Valves General.A flange leak results in loss of product and energy, sometimes with disastrous consequences. No plant operator wants leaking of toxic or hazardous material that can harm human and environment. The gasket helps to achieve a reliable seal to prevent the leak from the flange joints. Pipe gaskets are manufactured in many different materials. Choosing the right material is vital to suit the application and the environment in which the gasket will be used.

You'll need to provide the gasket manufacturer with the following information. Non-metallic gaskets can compress easily with low tension bolting.

Types of Gaskets

One exception is graphite gaskets, which can be used for temperatures as high as degrees centigrade. Rubber and elastomer gaskets are not used for pipelines used to transport hydrocarbons. Metallic Gaskets Metal is used for ring type joints in high-pressure applications, such as oil and gas supply production. RTJs are also used on valves and pipework, assemblies in refineries and other process industries.

They seal by an initial line contact or a wedging action as the compressive forces are applied. Metal ring type gaskets are available with oval and octagonal cross sections. Composite Gaskets Composite gaskets are a combination of metal and non-metal material based on service requirement. Spiral wound, Metal Jacketed, and Kamprofile gasket are well known in composite gasket category. Composite gaskets are cost effective as compared to metal gaskets, but careful handling is required.

Composite gaskets are used on raised face, male-female, and tongue-and-groove flanges. Choosing the correct gasket is just one of the factors to ensure joint integrity. If the finish on the flange face is scratched, pitted or dented then the risk of leakage is very high.

Even at the construction stage of new pipelines a flange surface can be dented or scratched. Fortunately, this can be fixed using a flange facing machine. These machines are available for the smallest of flanges up to huge diameters as much as 3 meters or more.

Alternatively, download our guide to managing flanges. Types of gasket for oil, gas, petrochemicals and power generation. Rubber and elastomer gaskets are not used for pipelines used to transport hydrocarbons Metallic Gaskets Metal is used for ring type joints in high-pressure applications, such as oil and gas supply production. Gasket Configurations Full Face: As the name suggests, these cover the entire flange face and include bolt holes.

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They can only be used with full face flanges. The RF flange iconcentrates more pressure on a smaller gasket area and thereby increases the pressure containment capability of the joint.

RTJ: Metal Ring type joint gaskets.They must be made of a softer material than the metal surfaces. Gaskets are generally incorporated as the seal between flanges. The clamping bolts pull the metal flanges together. By tightening the clamping bolts, the metal surfaces compress the gasket material. The gasket material fills the imperfections of the metal surfaces. This then forms a tight seal. There are many types of gasket used on plant equipment. They are made from a variety of materials to meet the demands of process gas or fluid, temperature and pressure.

Other gaskets are cut to size and shape from a large sheet. These are normally only nonmetallic types.

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The correct selection of gasket is very important. A lot of things have to be considered when choosing a gasket, such as the operating pressure and temperature, working conditions, and the type of fluid used. Every mechanical technician must have a good knowledge of gaskets and gasket materials.

Gaskets need to be selected so that the required seating load is compatible with the flange facing, flange rating, strength of the flange and the bolting, and the materials are compatible with the service condition. For full face gaskets, fairly soft gasket materials are necessary and rubber or synthetic elastomers are generally used. They find application in low pressure below psi services. For raised faces the gasket is positioned inside the bolt circle and use pre-cut rings.

A wide variety of materials are available with many claiming to be alternatives to the compressed asbestos fibre grades used as a standard for many years. Composition and compressed fibre gaskets are used for Class For Class and above, spiral wound gaskets are used.

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A spiral wound gasket with both inner and outer supporting rings should be used for raised face flanged joints. The outer supporting ring serves to limit the compression on the spiral wound element and the inner ring serves to protect the windings from fluid flow turbulence. A new gasket should be used when a flange joint is made or remade. Using two or more gaskets to make-up a gap is not to be practised and jointing compounds must not be used.

It is important that the faces are properly prepared before making or re-making a joint. Ring joint gaskets come in four basic types, oval, octagonal and pressure energised RX and BX. Later development used octagonal gaskets in flat bottom grooves.

Since both types of gaskets can be used with flat bottom grooves, this is now the standard groove type. Old equipment with the round bottom grooves must be fitted with oval gaskets, since the octagonal gasket will not seal in this groove. A more recent development is the API 6BX flange which is used to handle higher pressures being encountered in the oilfields.

The pressure energised ring gasket which mates with this is the BX type. All flexatellic ring joint gaskets are manufactured from fully traceable material and are stress stamped with style, material reference and identification.

The ring type joints come in a range of material with their recommended hardness shown by means of identification codes.

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Gasket materials have to be soft enough to yield under the bolt load so that they fill the irregularities in the flange faces, jet resilient enough to cope with strains imposed by the piping system. Gasket materials must give the required level of leak tightness and be resistant to the process fluid at its operating temperature and pressure.They must be made of a softer material than the metal surfaces. Gaskets are generally incorporated as the seal between flanges.

The clamping bolts pull the metal flanges together. By tightening the clamping bolts, the metal surfaces compress the gasket material. The gasket material fills the imperfections of the metal surfaces. This then forms a tight seal. There are many types of gasket used on plant equipment. They are made from a variety of materials to meet the demands of process gas or fluid, temperature and pressure. Other gaskets are cut to size and shape from a large sheet.

These are normally only nonmetallic types. The correct selection of gasket is very important. A lot of things have to be considered when choosing a gasket, such as the operating pressure and temperature, working conditions, and the type of fluid used. Every mechanical technician must have a good knowledge of gaskets and gasket materials. Gaskets need to be selected so that the required seating load is compatible with the flange facing, flange rating, strength of the flange and the bolting, and the materials are compatible with the service condition.

For full face gaskets, fairly soft gasket materials are necessary and rubber or synthetic elastomers are generally used. They find application in low pressure below psi services. For raised faces the gasket is positioned inside the bolt circle and use pre-cut rings. A wide variety of materials are available with many claiming to be alternatives to the compressed asbestos fibre grades used as a standard for many years.

Composition and compressed fibre gaskets are used for Class For Class and above, spiral wound gaskets are used. A spiral wound gasket with both inner and outer supporting rings should be used for raised face flanged joints. The outer supporting ring serves to limit the compression on the spiral wound element and the inner ring serves to protect the windings from fluid flow turbulence.

A new gasket should be used when a flange joint is made or remade. Using two or more gaskets to make-up a gap is not to be practised and jointing compounds must not be used.

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It is important that the faces are properly prepared before making or re-making a joint. Ring joint gaskets come in four basic types, oval, octagonal and pressure energised RX and BX. Later development used octagonal gaskets in flat bottom grooves. Since both types of gaskets can be used with flat bottom grooves, this is now the standard groove type. Old equipment with the round bottom grooves must be fitted with oval gaskets, since the octagonal gasket will not seal in this groove.

gasket materials and applications

A more recent development is the API 6BX flange which is used to handle higher pressures being encountered in the oilfields. The pressure energised ring gasket which mates with this is the BX type.

All flexatellic ring joint gaskets are manufactured from fully traceable material and are stress stamped with style, material reference and identification. The ring type joints come in a range of material with their recommended hardness shown by means of identification codes. Gasket materials have to be soft enough to yield under the bolt load so that they fill the irregularities in the flange faces, jet resilient enough to cope with strains imposed by the piping system.

Gasket materials must give the required level of leak tightness and be resistant to the process fluid at its operating temperature and pressure.


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